Do I have laying worker bees?

worker_honeycomb_2

John A. Gaut
One topic that seems to be a concern to many beekeepers is laying workers in a colony that appears queenless. Basic Beekeeping classes teach that once a colony is queenless and broodless, laying workers will develop. Once laying workers develop, it is very difficult to requeen the colony and it becomes “hopelessly queenless.” The colony will raise drones from the unfertilized eggs of the laying workers as long as they have resources and the nurse bees. (This is the only way a queenless colony can pass along its genes to the next generation.) The colony will continue to dwindle until it dies. Beekeepers want to prevent this scenario!
If a colony swarms or supercedes the queen, the new queen must mature and mate before laying eggs. In the meantime any brood is maturing and emerging. The colony could be broodless for a few days to over a week until a new queen starts to lay. It is during this time a beekeeper may think the colony is queenless and believes they need to introduce a new queen. They should wait for a few days though. If a new laying queen (with her big abdomen) is introduced, the younger more agile queen will very likely kill her.
If the beekeeper has a “resource nuc” or another strong colony, they could take a frame of brood with eggs, larva and capped brood (but no queen!) and put it in the suspected queenless colony. If the colony is truly queenless, the colony will raise a queen from a young larva. Otherwise the frame of brood helps reinforce the colony population. Every beekeeper should have a nuc or two to support the honey producing colonies.
So how long can a colony be queenless and broodless before laying workers develop?
Actually, there are always a few (1 in 10,000) laying workers in a colony. There are other workers that “police” the egg laying of these laying workers by removing most of the eggs. (Some eggs do survive in queen right colonies in the drone cells!)
All workers have ovaries. Most are not developed or very underdeveloped. Workers cannot mate so any eggs they lay are unfertilized and will be male drones. Both the queen pheromones and the pheromones from the brood suppress the development of ovaries in the workers. (Based on my observations with queen rearing, the brood pheromone seems like it is the major factor in suppressing the ovary development.) As the brood pheromone decreases due to decreasing brood population, more young workers (4 to 8 days old) develop functional ovaries. Also, less policing occurs. Once a colony is queenless and broodless for a few weeks, there could be a hundred or more laying workers in a colony! They look like any other worker though. (Laying workers may have a slightly larger abdomen; so do workers with a large nectar load in the honey stomach.)
How do you deal with laying workers?
The method of shaking the bees off the frames over 100 feet from the hive has never worked for me (or many other beekeepers). All the bees including the laying workers seem to be able to fly back to the hive. (Most of the bees are back at the hive location before I can get back there with the empty frames!)
Another option is to put frames of brood in the colony. If the laying workers have not developed too much, frames of brood (3 or more) often “shuts down” the laying workers. The colony may raise a queen from young larva on the frame. Or a queen can be introduced a few days later in between these frames of brood; that is still risky for the new queen though. Laying workers produce pheromones similar to a queen, making the colony think they have a queen resulting in the death of any introduced queens.
Many beekeepers place the laying worker colony over a strong queen right colony with a queen excluder in between and maybe a sheet of newspaper too. The pheromones from the queen and brood below the queen excluder help shut down the laying workers and increase policing. After a week or two, the queen excluder can be removed and the combined colony can be inspected to verify it is still queen right. (There is a small risk to this queen too!)
Some beekeepers say the workers move eggs or larva! The beekeepers did not actually witness the event, they only observed eggs above a queen excluder for example. A much more likely explanation for eggs in an area of the hive where there is no queen is laying workers. Laying workers will lay in any cell; drone cells, worker cells and even queen cells. Typically, there are multiple eggs; extra larva is “culled” once the eggs hatch. All these eggs will develop into drones, including the eggs in worker cells and queen cells. The queen cells with drones will look small and not shaped like a normal queen cell.
Most colonies successfully requeen themselves and do not develop laying workers. The few days before the new queen begins laying can challenge the beekeeper’s skills to be patient! Once the new queen has been laying, evaluate the brood pattern. If the new queen is not laying well or the colony becomes too defensive with her new genetics (she may have mated with some very defensive drones), consider requeening. Requeening is much more successful in a colony that has brood and is queen right.

June 16 Meeting- Mite Treatment

timmitewash

Confused by the myriad of mite treatments? Please join us Friday, June 16, when Tim Schuler, NJ State Apiarist will speak on treatments such as Apivar, Oxalic Acid and MAQs and how and when to use them. He will also show us how to use the mite alcohol tester. Mite control is one of the most important issues facing beekeepers today. Tim will share his experiences with successful mite control. We will also have a limited number of Apivar and MAQ treatments for sale. Our meetings are always the third Friday of every month, beginning at 7:30 pm. We meet at Ramapo College 505 Ramapo Valley Road Mahwah, NJ in the Anisfield School of Business, Room 135S.

May 19 Meeting – Swap meet, Hive management

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Our officers will be answer the question what’s going on in my hive? with a discussion on hive inspections and summer management.
We will also be hosting our first ever Sell It or Swap It. Do you have bee equipment that you never use, just sitting in your garage taking up space? Have you ever bought some bee equipment that you never use and you’d like to get rid of? Grab any equipment you’d like to sell or trade and bring it to our monthly meeting. Since the club is sponsoring this event, we ask that you donate 10% of the money you make from the items you sell to the club.
So, if you sell something for $10, that’s only $1 to the club. (And if you sell something for $1 million dollars, then that’s a mere $100,000 to the club!)
So dust off all your stuff, and bring it and your cash to our regular monthly meeting at Ramapo College on May 19 at 7:30 p.m.

April 21 meeting- Nucs, swarm management

nuc

So you got your nuc, now what do you do? The Northeast NJ Beekeepers will go over care for your new colony and what to expect your first year.
Swarm season has already hit with one of our member’s colonies swarming on Easter. We will discuss swarm management, splits and what to do if they do swarm.
Our meetings are always the third Friday of every month, beginning at 7:30 pm. We meet at Ramapo College 505 Ramapo Valley Road Mahwah, NJ in the Anisfield School of Business, Room 135S.

March 17 Meeting – Value added products for beekeepers

cosmetics

Landi Simone of the Essex County Beekeepers will speak on going beyond honey sales and will discuss making honey products to sell or give as gifts. From creams to honey spreads to bees wax candle, Landi has been turning her honey into the area’s best organic honey products for years.
John Gaut will also be discussing the mentoring program. And Bob will be taking nuc orders for April delivery.

Favorite beekeeping tools of the trade

 

hive-carrier

At our February Meeting Frank Mortimer and John Gaut went beyond the basics in beekeeping gadgets and showed us their favorite beekeeping tools.
Here’s a list of their favorites, costs and where to find them:

Favorite Hive Top – English Garden Copper top allows for ventilation. Betterbee is the only company that sells this outer cover with the hole for ventilation and that’s the key. $93.95

http://www.betterbee.com/wooden-hive-equipment-10-frame/acht10-american-copper-hive-top.asp

Slatted Rack – Great for overwintering and swarm control. Allows queen to lay in lower comb and provides for clustering which can reduce swarming. Install between bottom board and brood chamber. It also conveniently fits a tray underneath for easy inspection of hive droppings. Slatted rack Mann Lake $18.25. Varroa Debris Tray Betterbee $6.95.

http://www.betterbee.com/pest-management-and-medications/tray-varroa-monitor.asp

Favorite Hive Tool – Frame Lifter and Scraper (Italian) The best at lifting frames out of chamber. Best used two at a time. All Companies sell them, but Mann Lake has cheapest at $8.95.

https://www.mannlakeltd.com/shop-all-categories/hive-colony-maintenance/tools-and-hardware/hand-tools/10-1-2-frame-lifter-and-scraper

Least Favorite Hand Tool – Frame grip

Hive scale- Place an eyelet on the back of bottom board. Attach luggage scale to weigh hives. Wisefield on Amazon $12.99
https://www.amazon.com/dp/B01N9KEMBX?psc=1

Must Have Mite control tool – Mite alcohol wash is a must to count mites. Available through the club at meetings. $20

Best Gloves- Economy Venter gloves. Mann Lake $17.95

https://www.mannlakeltd.com/shop-all-categories/protective-gear/gloves/economy-vented-leather-glove

Best Helper – Cloth to cover top of chamber and frames to keep bees calm while hive diving. Any dishtowel will do.

Coolest Looking – Bee Belt to hold tools. Just like Batman, every beekeeper needs a good utility belt that holds everything they need. Countryfields out of Canada $85.
https://countryfields.ca/products/bee-belt

Nice to have around – Use Terramycin if diagnosed with American Foulbrood by dusting top bars. Grant Stile Stiles Apiary. 732-661-0700.

Best hive mover – The Brushy Hive mover makes moving the hives easy. Make sure to strap the components together first. Brushy $75

http://www.brushymountainbeefarm.com/Hive-Carrier/productinfo/935/

Bucket Blanket- When honey crystalizes the Betterbee bucket blanket does the trick.

http://www.betterbee.com/heaters-and-liquifiers/heater.asp

Handy – Bucket bench allows you to rest a pail in the Bucket Bench to allow honey to drain out into another bucket while you do other tasks.

http://www.betterbee.com/beekeeping-tools/bholder.asp

Feb. 17 Meeting – Gagdets

excellent-quality-26-5cm-wooden-handle-stainless

This month we go beyond the basics of hive tool and smoker with Frank Mortimer and John Gaut who will show us their favorite beekeeping gadgets. From the hive mover to quiet boxes to Italian hive tools we will have a show and tell on the coolest tools of the trade.
Our meetings are always the third Friday of every month, beginning at 7:30 pm. We meet at Ramapo College 505 Ramapo Valley Road Mahwah, NJ in the Anisfield School of Business, Room 135S.

Nov. 18 meeting – Dr. Tom Seeley biologist and Honeybee Democracy Author

seeley

Tired of the elections? Well find out how the bees do it. On Nov. 18 at 7:30 p.m. the Northeast New Jersey Beekeepers Association welcomes Dr. Tom Seeley, professor in Biology, in the Department of Neurobiology and Behavior at Cornell University, Ithaca, NY and the author of Honeybee Democracy.
His scientific work has primarily focused on understanding the phenomenon of swarm intelligence (SI): the solving of cognitive problems by a group of individuals who pool their knowledge and process it through social interactions. It has long been recognized that a group of animals, relative to a solitary individual, can do such things as capture large prey more easily and counter predators more effectively. More recently it has been realized that a group of animals, with the right organization, can also solve cognitive problems with an ability that far exceeds the cognitive ability of any single animal, said Seeley.
Since 1995, Seeley has concentrated on figuring out how a swarm of honey bees chooses a new home. This problem arises when a colony reproduces and the old queen bee and some ten thousand worker bees leave the parental hive to produce a daughter colony. The emigrating bees settle on a tree branch in a beard-like cluster and then hang out there together for several days. During this time, these homeless insects do something truly amazing: they hold a democratic debate to choose their new living quarters. Exactly how they do so is reviewed in his book Honeybee Democracy.
According to Seeley, the analyses of collective decision-making by honeybee colonies indicate that a group will possess a high level of SI if among the group’s members there is:
1) diversity of knowledge about the available options,
2) open and honest sharing of information about the options,
3) independence in the members’ evaluations of the options,
4) unbiased aggregation of the members’ opinions on the options, and
5) leadership that fosters but does not dominate the discussion.
At present, his main research interest is in the area of conservation biology: determining how honey bee colonies living in the wild are able to survive without being treated with pesticides for controlling a deadly ectoparasitic mite, Varroa destructor. Understanding how feral honey bee accomplish this will help beekeepers develop sustainable, pesticide-free approaches to beekeeping.His book Following the Wild Bees covers this topic.
honeybeedemocracy

Two of Seeley’s books will be available for sale at the meeting: The Honey Bee Democracy and his new book Following the Wild Bees. After the presentation, Dr. Seeley will be glad to autograph these and other books.

We will be meeting on the Ramapo College Campus in the H-Wing Auditorium at 7:30. Ramapo College is located at 505 Ramapo Valley Road, Mahwah, NJ

Map to H-wing

Oct. 21 Meeting – All about Mead

 

On Friday Oct. 21, the Northeast NJ Beekeepers Meeting will be SWEET as we discuss the wine of the gods – Mead. Bob Slanzi, the Northeast NJ Beekeepers Association’s Meadmaster, EAS speaker, and national award winning mead maker, will be talking about how you can turn your honey into mead. Bob is a nationally recognized mead maker and has won multiple competitions, including Best in Show at NYC largest Home Brewers contest beating out over 750 entries. Bob will be offering samples of some of his award-winning brews, so come and learn how to put your extra honey to work to make the oldest kind of wine.Please click on the link to read more about Mead in New Jersey.
Our meetings are always the third Friday of every month, beginning at 7:30 pm. We meet at Ramapo College 505 Ramapo Valley Road Mahwah, NJ in the Anisfield School of Business, Room 135S.